External References



  • Heller et al (1999) Pharmacokinetics of Calcium Absorption from Two Commercial Calcium Supplements. J Clin Pharm 39:11 1151-1154
  • Kappeler et al (2017) Higher bioavailability of magnesium citrate as compared to magnesium oxide shown by evaluation of urinary excretion and serum levels after single-dose administration in a randomized cross-over study. BMC Nutrition 3:7
  • Sakhaee K et al. (1999) Meta-analysis of calcium bioavailability: a comparison of calcium citrate with calcium carbonate. Am J Ther 6(6):313-21
  • Tondapu et al (2009) Comparison of the Absorption of Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Citrate after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Obes Surg 19:1256-1261
  • Walker et al (2003) Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study. Clinical Trial Magnes Res 16(3):183-91

Omega 3 fatty acids

  • Dyerberg et al. (2010) Prost Leuko Bioavailability of marine n-3 fatty acid formulations. Essen Fatty Acids 83:137-141
  • El Boustani et al. (1987) Enteral absorption in man of eicosapentaenoic acid in different chemical forms. Lipids 22(10):711-714.
  • Lawson LD et al. (1988) Human absorption of fish oil fatty acids as triacylglycerols, free acids, or ethyl esters. Biochem & Biophys Res Comm 152(1):328-335

Calcium carbonate (chalk) side effects

  • https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/calcium_supplements_may_damage_the_heart
  • Bolland (2013) Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on. Ther Adv Drug Saf 4:199-210
  • Li et al (2018) The good, the bad, and the ugly of calcium supplementation: a review of calcium intake on human health. Clin Interv Aging. 2018; 13: 2443–2452

Personalised diets

  • Clenin et al (2015) Iron deficiency in sports – definition, influence on performance and therapy. Swiss Med Wkly. 2015;145:w14196
  • McClung et al (2014) Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance. J Trace Elem Med Biol 28:388-392
  • Micheletti (2001) Zinc status in athletes: Relation to diet and exercise. Sports Medicine 31(8):577-82
  • Rogerson (2017) Vegan diets: practical advice for athletes and exercisers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 14: 36.

Tablets versus capsules

  • Löbenberg et al (2006) Investigation of vitamin and mineral tablets and capsules on the Canadian market. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 9(1):40-49
  • Manitpisitkul P, et al. (2018) Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of TRPV1 Antagonist Mavatrep (JNJ-39439335) Tablet and Capsule Formulations in Healthy Men: Two Open-Label, Crossover, Single-Dose Phase 1 Studies. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 7(7):699-711
  • Overgaard ABA, et al. (2001) Patients’ evaluation of shape, size and colour of solid dosage forms. Pharmacy World & Science; Oct. 2001;23(5):185-8